The "Bar group" tool allows creating a group of reinforcing bars allocated with a specified interval between them. It is identical to the "Single bar" tool, except that it requires to indicate the starting and the endpoint for copying the reinforcing bars.
It is located at the main menu ribbon next to the "Single bar"
To run the tool, let's create a concrete column with dimensions of 1000*1000 mm, a "Top point" value equal to 400, and the "Bottom point" equal to 0 mm.
The algorithm for using the "Bar group" tool is as follows:
Note that the coordinates of points 2 and 4 are the same, though they
Thus we define the shape and the limits for copying the reinforcing bar.
All the points are movable by using the Ctrl+M hotkey combination. Let's move the point (3) which defines the endpoint of the reinforcing bar. Enable the Ctrl+M hotkey combination and drag the endpoint to the midpoint of the concrete column's side. See below:
Modifying the shape and dimensions of the initial reinforcing bar automatically modifies the respective parameters of the whole bar group. Thus you can simultaneously adjust the characteristics of the whole bar group.
Now let's extend the bar group's length over the concrete object's bounds. Drag the endpoint of the reinforcing bar to the opposite direction at 2000mm. Such a configuration is quite standard in the case of the cast-in-place structures.
Now let's exercise moving the endpoint which defines the limit for copying the reinforcing bars. Move the endpoint (5) to the midpoint of the concrete column's side. See below:
As you can see, the shape of the reinforcing bars remained the same, only the bar group size changed. Thus let's conclude that modifying the copying limit redistributes the bar group and influences its size.
Delete the bar group and create a new one, where the diameter of the reinforcing bars is of a larger value, e.g. 32, or any other value available with your catalog.
Let's add up one more bar group perpendicular to the initial one.
Select all the bar groups and copy them to the concrete column's bottom.
Go to the "Concrete column Properties" menu and change the profile
As you can see, the bar group changed its configurations. Let's analyze
The starting and the endpoints of the bar group are snapped to the concrete column's faces. Thus when modifying the concrete object's dimensions, the points are automatically moved to the new coordinates in the way to be snapped to the same faces.
Now modify the "Top point" of the concrete column to 2000 mm.
According to the above, the bar groups are moved to the new coordinates though the reinforcing meshes are still of the same dimensions. See below the defining points of the bar groups. Each point is snapped to the object's face plane.
In the below example, each point is located at the intersection of the three faces of the concrete column's cube, this employing the right reconfiguration of the bar groups upon the concrete object's updates.
Let's break this automatic interconnection by moving points from the
Let's analyze position 1 of the point. The point is simultaneously
After moving the point into Position 2, it is already snapped to only 2 faces of the column. The third face is located at a distance to the point, which is not snapped to it anymore.
Now, upon the cast unit size modification, the bar groups will not be
Let's check the snaps of the points. Modify the profile value of the
Thus set out the profile value at 3000*2000 or 2000*3000 to get as it is shown below. The bar group automatically changed its dimensions at the snap points. Marked in red, you can see the column faces that departed from each other and caused the bar group dimensions modification.
Also, let's not miss out on the third coordinate defined by the Z-axis. Modify the "Top point" of the concrete objects by setting its value at 1000mm.
As all the points of the bar groups are snapped to the top and the bottom faces of the column, thus they kept their location upon the "Top point" position value modification.
Thus each point of the bar group is snapped by the axes X, Y, Z, and it
Now, let's modify the concrete column's profile value in the way, to change the dimensions of the column's faces to which the bar group points do not refer. Set out the profile value at 3000*3000 mm.
Thus the points moved along the snaps to the column's faces. Points 1 and 2 moved to the left towards the column face, keeping the bar group size in this direction. As the points are not snapped to the face marked in yellow, thus no bar group size modification resulted. Let's similarly move another points group to break their snapping to the column's face.
Now let's modify the column's profile value, and make sure that
Note that the snaps along the Z-axis are still active, as the bar group points lay on the column's top and bottom faces. Upon modifying the column's top and bottom positions, the bar group moves automatically along the top and the bottom face of the concrete object.
Let's break all the snaps and tear the connection of all points to the column's faces. For this, move the bar group points at 500 mm as it is shown below:
Further, move all points of the bar group at 300 mm from the column's
Set out the "Top point" of the column at 400 mm. Previously the bar group was moving along the Z-axis. Now the software considers the bar group points' offsets from the column's faces. See below:
Select the top bar groups and drag them downwards at 100 mm not to lay
Proceed similarly for the bottom bar groups.
As a result, we get all the bar groups' located into the concrete object's body. None of the bar group's points lay at the concrete column's faces.
Let's modify the concrete column's profile and "Position"
Set out the profile value at 5000*5000, and the position values as 0 and 2000 mm. Tekla Structures automatically saves all the proportions, considering the offsets from the faces. This facilitates modeling structures swiftly.
Considering the above, we can conclude that simply moving the bar groups from an object's face breaks all the snaps. In this way, the software understands that the user aims to allocate the bar groups inside the concrete object's body. Exercise to create arbitrary bar groups and toggle between all the possible points positions of this group, deploying modifications in the concrete object's dimensions.
Rebar default adaptivity represents the multitude of regimes, allowing adjustment of the rebar geometry to changes in dimensions of the concrete object to which it refers.
It is possible to specify the adaptivity regime in the right-click menu. However, for this, you have to make sure that you selected the rebar group only, otherwise, selecting the concrete object removes the adaptivity tool from the right-click menu options.
To unselect a concrete object without deactivating the selection of the rebar groups, holt on the Ctrl key and execute a left-click on the concrete object.
Further, go to the right-click menu.
Currently, adaptivity is set as "Default". To find out the exact regime set out as the default one, proceed as follows: File > Settings> Options> General.
Thus you can see that the default settings equal "Fixed".
Select only the upper bar group and switch off its adaptivity. Do not apply any changes to the bottom bar group, leaving its adaptivity type equal to "Fixed".
Thus the upper and the bottom bar groups have different adaptivity types. Modify the concrete object's dimensions by setting the profile value at 3000*3000.
The bar group with a switched-off adaptivity has not changed its dimensions according to the concrete object's profile value update. The bottom bar group has changed its shape as it is set at the "Fixed" adaptivity type.
There are two basic adaptivity types: fixed and relative. To identify the differences between these two regimes, create a concrete column of the 1000*1000 profile, with the height value of 300 mm, and class value equal to 10. Create a bar group on the column's top face.
Select and move the bar group points off a concrete object’s face
Using the “Copy Special-Linear” tool, create 3 similar test
Switch off the adaptivity for the first test model.
For the second test model, set out the adaptivity regime at “Relative”.
For the third test model, set out the adaptivity regime at “Fixed”.
Thus all the test models are defined by different adaptivity regimes.
As you can see from the above the adaptivity regime influences the final
Now change the object’s height. Set up the top point value at 1000mm.
In the above picture, you can see that with the adaptivity regime switched off the bar group's local coordinates are not updated and possess the values defined by the initial origin coordinates of the concrete object.
By employing the "Bar group" tool, let's create reinforcing
Create a new concrete object by using the "Column" tool configured at the "Profile" field at 1000*1000 mm and the "Class" field at 6.
To create a reinforcing bar with inflections, let's deploy the "Construction geometry"/"Line" tool to facilitate the process. Create a line defined by two points. Refer to the below:
Select the line and go to the right-click menu. Enable the "Copy Special"/"Linear" tool. Set out the copying at "Number of copies" equal to 4, copying distance of 250mm. Refer to the below to define the right copying axis:
The algorithm for using the "Bar group" tool when creating the
Modify the concrete object's height to 400mm.
As you can see, all the reinforcing bars changed their position, as all the bar group's points were snapped to the top and the bottom faces of the concrete object.
Let's create standard bar group template shapes which are frequently used for modeling structures. Copy/paste the concrete object four more times, with the spacing value between the copies equal to 1500mm. Make sure you copy the construction geometry objects as well.
Note that selecting the concrete object automatically selects the reinforcing bars as well. This is one of the most important properties of the reinforcing bars. Delete all the bar groups in the concrete objects except for the initial one.
Go to the second concrete object and create a typical reinforcing bar
Follow the algorithm presented in the below picture. Use the construction
Repeat the above from the opposite side of the concrete object.
Create the bar groups along with all the faces of the concrete object.
Go to the third concrete object and create another typical bar group.
Follow the algorithm presented in the below picture.
Create one more bar group perpendicular to the first one, right in the
Go to the fourth concrete object and create a reinforcing bar group.
Create a standard square reinforcing mesh. Firstly, create a longitudinal
Proceed to create a similar bar group perpendicularly to the longitudinal.
Select the square reinforcing mesh and copy it to the bottom face of the
Go to concrete object number five.
Create horizontal reinforcing bars along with the perimeter of the concrete
Create one more reinforcing bar group perpendicular to the initial one, where the concrete object's height defines the bar group length value, but the object's side length indicates the interval for allocating the bar group elements.
Compare your results to those presented above.
Let's execute "Copy Special/ Rotate" for the bar groups
Make sure you unselect the concrete object, thus at the right bottom corner
Also, consider the fact that a view is an object as well. As a result,
Indicate the number of copies and the rotation angle for every subsequent copy. The total number of copies to achieve is three, defined by the rotation angle equal to 90 degrees. Further, press the "Copy" button.
Compare your results to those presented above.
Below you can see all the bar group shapes created.
Further, let's adjust the cover thickness values for each shape created.
The "Cover thickness" field
It is essential that reinforcing bars are covered by concrete from all sides, otherwise, the metal bars are exposed to corrosion. In Tekla Structures there is a group of parameters defining the margins from the concrete body to the bar group. Let's investigate the "Cover thickness" section functioning by setting up and applying various values to the bar groups.
Go to object number four and set up its "Cover thickness" "Start"
The endpoints of the reinforcing bars shifted at 25mm into the concrete body. However, the first and the last reinforcing bar are still located at the concrete object's edge. Thus it is necessary to move the bar into the concrete not at 25 mm, but at 50 mm. The offset value of over 25 mm is required to bind reinforcing bars.
The bind joint is marked in blue. In case the offset value is just 25 mm, then there would be no overlapping of the reinforcing bars and binding would be difficult to realize.
Repeat the above for all the bar groups.
See below the result. Consider the fact that adjusting the bar groups should be done for both the upper and the bottom sides of the concrete objects.
Rotate the view in the way to see the side projections of the bar groups. Thus you can see that the offsets are created along the horizontal axes, except for the vertical one.
Set up the "On plane" field value at 25. Depending on the direction of creating the reinforcing bar, the "On plane" parameter shifts the objects bilaterally along the vertical axis. Thus make sure you indicate the value of the parameter with the correct sign (plus or minus).
Adjust all the bar groups. Note, that in practice it is not acceptable
Thus it is essential to know the diameter of the reinforcing bars and
In the current case study, the diameter of the reinforcing bars equals 10mm. If you have any different value then set it at 10 mm, to facilitate calculating the offset.
Configure one of the bar group's offsets equal to 25+10=35mm. After
Proceed in a similar way for the bottom bar group. Pay attention to the
Determine the offset direction. Shift the bar groups at 25 and 35 mm respectfully.
Compare your results to those presented in the above picture.
The "Target spacing value" parameter allows configuring the distance between the reinforcing bars. By default, it is set up at 200 mm.
Distributing reinforcing bars is a very complex task, as it requires configuring not only the spacing between the objects as well as considering the restant distance from dividing the object's surface at the target spacing value.
Let's admit that the initial concrete object's dimensions equal 1000mm. If we configure the target spacing value at 200mm, then there should be 1000/200= 5 reinforcing bars. However in practice, the first and the last bar are usually shifted at 50 mm into the concrete body. Thus the spacing between the first and the last reinforcing bars is 1000-100=900 mm. In the above picture, you can see that we can easily allocate 4 reinforcing bars with the spacing between them equal to 200 mm ( in total - 600mm).
The effective dimension of the bar group equals 900, where 600 mm stands for allocating the reinforcing bars with the 200mm target spacing value between them. Thus 900-600=300 mm, which is divided in two, thus the value of 150 mm defines the allocation of the first and the last reinforcing bars with reference to the bar group. Thought this is just one of the admissible distribution options.
Let's change the "Target spacing value" to 100mm.
As you can see, the distances between the reinforcing bars have changed,
The restant distance is evenly distributed between the lateral bars.
Set up the "Target spacing value" at 250 mm.
Further, let's make a detailed overview of the distribution scheme
The "Creation method" parameter
In the previous case study, the restant distance was evenly distributed among the lateral bars. Though, it is possible to configure the distribution in various ways by toggling between the drop-down options of the "Creation method" menu.
Let's change the "Creation method" type.
The "Equal distribution by number of reinforcing bars" type considers only the number of the bars in the bar group. The spacing value between the bars is automatically calculated by dividing the dimensions of the object at the number of bars.
Thus the spacing values are even.
Indicate the "Number of reinforcing bars" as 4. The target spacing
The "Equal distribution by target spacing value" is the most frequently used distribution type. We used it in the previous case study.
Set a different “Target spacing” value. The remaining distance
The "By exact spacing value with flexible first space" distribution type evenly divides the remaining distance between the first and the last reinforcing bars, where the first bar is allocated along with the starting point, but the other bars are allocated with the indicated interval of 200 mm.
Let's get to another distribution type.
The "By exact spacing value with flexible last space" distribution type sets out the remaining distance between the penultimate and the last reinforcing bars. All the other spacing values will be equal to 250mm, as indicated in the "Exact spacing value" field.
The "By the exact spacing value with the flexible middle space" distribution type allocates the remaining distance right in the middle of the bar group when the other bars are allocated with the indicated spacing between them. The sum of the spacing values is equal to the distance between the first and the last bar of the group.
The "By exact spacing value with flexible first and last space" distribution type evenly allocates the remaining distance at the starting and the endpoints of the bar group, as well as keeps the indicated spacing value between the other bar group elements.
The "By exact spacing" distribution type allows configuring each spacing between the bar group elements separately. All the spacing values are to be written in with the "Space" separator between them.
Exercise to insert various values into the “Exact spacing value”
The "Reinforcing bars not to be created to the group" field allows excluding the first, the last, or both lateral bars from the bar group without configuring the offsets and the "Start" and "End" point allocation.
The "First" value disables the first reinforcing bar in the bar group. Let's apply this value to see the respective changes in the model. In the below picture the excluded reinforcing bar is marked by a red dash line. In real models, it is completely lacking. The first reinforcing bar is considered to be the first one at the bar group starting point.
The "Last" value disables the last reinforcing bar in the bar group. Let’s try applying it to the model.
The "First and last" value
The "None" value renders all the reinforcing bars of the bar group. Apply this option to the model to get back to its default settings.
Keep in mind that creating a new reinforcing bar group automatically configures
Thus we have finalized configuring the concrete object number four.
Go to concrete object number three. Note that the lateral bars are duplicated thus causing overlapping of the edge bar groups. See framed with red the duplicated bards.
Configure the "Exclude" field in a way to avoid creating the
Indicate the “Start” and the “End” offset value
Indicate the similar value of 25 mm for the “On plane” parameter.
The “On plane” value of the perpendicular bar group should
Compare your results to those presented below:
Go to concrete object number 5.
Make sure that the bar group diameter value is set at 10 mm.
Select the lateral bar groups as it is shown below:
Go to the view plane by pressing the Ctrl+P hotkey combination and set
Unselect the bar groups.
Select the other bar group by referring to the below picture. Let’s configure the offsets of the bar groups to be allocated into the concrete body at 60mm depth.
Select the perpendicular bar group and configure its offsets at 50 mm into the concrete body, thus being at 10 mm less than at the previous bar groups.
Select other bar groups which are overlapping by their lateral bars.
In the current case study, it is not possible to set up the "Exclude" field at the "First and Last" option, as we can not avoid disappearing both lateral reinforcing bars.
That is why let's disable only the first reinforcing bar by enabling
Set up the “Start” and the “End” offset values
Go to the view plane by enabling the Ctrl+P hotkey combination. Proceed
Compare your results to those presented below:
Thus we have configured concrete object number five. Now let’s get
Concrete object number 2.
Make sure the reinforcing bar diameter is set at 10mm to facilitate calculating
By referring to the below picture, configure the “Cover thickness”
As you can see, the bar groups are intersecting as they are snapped to one and the same planes and are defined by the same offset settings. (See the intersecting bar groups marked with red).
It is not possible to configure the offset values of the faces differently with reference to the upper and bottom edges. Thus let’s use the “Move Special”/”Linear” to simply displace one of the bar groups.
Move one of the bar groups at 5 mm upwards, and the other one at 5 mm
Compare your results to those presented below. Thus none of the bar groups’
Let’s get to concrete object number 1.
Concrete object number 1.
Make sure that the diameter of the bar group is set at 10mm. In practice,
Go to the view plane by pressing the Ctrl+P hotkey combination and set
Now, it is required to set out the "Start" and the "End" offset. However, the reinforcing bar is positioned at an angle, and indicating the "Cover thickness" value of 25 mm does not set out the necessary offset of the bar from the concrete edge. Thus, let's adjust the offset value ( marked by X) in the way to assure the necessary distance between the concrete edge and the reinforcing bar.
Also, it is possible to set out the offset by using the Ctrl+M hotkey combination. Consider that the "Cover thickness" values stand for distance to the edge of the reinforcing bar. The vertical moving by using the Ctrl+M hotkey combination assures indicating the distance to the reinforcing bar centerpoint, thus let's execute shifting of the reinforcement not at 25mm, but at the distance equal to 25+0.5d = 30mm in the downwards direction.
Proceed in a similar way with the bottom points.
Restore the “Start” and the “End” offset values to 0, and execute moving the side points at 25 mm by using the Ctrl+M hotkey combination neglecting the diameter value of the reinforcing bars.
Make sure that you executed the shifting in the right way according to
Thus we have examined the most common options for setting out the “Cover
The "Rebar group types" parameter allows modeling the bar groups' shapes. Let's create a concrete slab with dimensions of 3000*2000, profile value of 300, class value of 13, to try out using this parameter.
Create a bar group with the offset values equal to 0, and reinforcing
Execute the “Copy Special”/ “Linear” thus creating
Go to slab object number two.
In the “Reinforcing Bar Properties” menu, set out the “Rebar
Upon applying the new value to the "Rebar group types", several changes have their place, visible upon selecting the bar group and which are the additional points number 5 and 6, not defined during the process of creating the bar group. These points define the bar group geometry at the end of the group's range, where points number 1 and 2 define the bar group's geometry at the start of the group's range. The distance between points number 1 and 2 equals the respective between points number 5 and 6 thus there are no visual changes in the model. Select point number 5, as it is shown below, and shift it along the side of the slab at 1000mm.
Shape out the concrete slab in a similar way by using the Ctrl+M hotkey
Now the concrete slab shape is similar to the rebar group shape. Move the bottom concrete object's point as it is shown below. As you can see, it is sufficient to shift the concrete object's points to simultaneously adjust the bar group shape, as the bars are snapped to the edges of the slab, this being a very important property of the bar group objects. Move the bottom point of the concrete slab at 200 upwards.
Go to concrete slab object number three.
Concrete slab number three.
Set out the “Rebar group types” at “Taperred ridge” value. The software automatically created the midpoints to assure configuring the cross sectional shape of the bar group.
Displace the upper mid point at 1000mm downwards as it is shown below:
Switch on the “Direct modification” regime and drag the imaginary
Also, displace the top right point of the concrete object at 1000mm in
Let’s get to the next concrete object.
Concrete slab number four.
Set out the "Rebar group shapes" at "Tapered curved". There are no visual changes in the model as the number of control points remains the same.
Move the middle control point of the bar group at 1000 downwards. Now
Switch on the "Direct modification" tool. Drag the imaginary
Now you can see the difference between linear slab shape and curvilinear
To adjust the geometry of the slab object, go to the "Chamfer properties"
Let’s get to slab number five.
Concrete slab number five.
Set out the “Rebar group types” at “Taperred N”. This type allows creating any number of cross sections defining the bar group element's length. Users can identify the cross section number value by themselves. Indicate the value of 4 units. Imaginary number the cross sections from 1 to 4.
Now it is possible to simultaneously edit the bar group by four cross-sections.
For this purpose apply the "Polygon cut" tool and create
The “Polygon cut” tool excluded a part of the concrete slab body except for the reinforcing bars. Select the bottom points of the bar group and drag them to the upper face of the cut.
Select the bar group points as shown below and move them to the side face
Move the points defining the third cross section to the left as it is
Thus we have modeled 2 bar groups of different length values. Schematically it can be presented as four cross-sectional geometry lines, where lines number two and three are located at the same place.
Go to the “Reinforcing bar Properties” menu and set up the
Copy/ Paste the added material body referring to the below scheme.
Displace the cross-sectional lines according to the below picture:
Thus we have studied all the straight rebar group types.
There is left the last rebar group type -the “Spiral” type.
The “Spiral” type.
To try out using this type of reinforcing bar shape create a concrete column with the profile type of 800*800, respectfully bottom and top levels of 0 and +2000, class value of 6.
Execute the “Copy Special”/ “Linear” of the column
By using the "Bar group" tool, create square shape bars along
Make sure that all the parameter values are set to the default null values,
Note that the bar group elements are not intersecting with each other
Set the “Cover thickness”/ “On plane”/ “From
Change the “Rebar group types” value to “Spiral”.
As you can see, the bar group elements are no longer distinct parts, but
Let’s get to concrete column number two.
Concrete column number two.
Create the spiral rebar group similar to the previous case study. Further,
Note, that changing the profile type does not modify the bar group shape to the circular one. Circle shape of the reinforcing bars is achieved by applying a different tool. Delete the bar group and let’s create it anew by applying the tool described in the next chapter.
The “Circular bar group” tool allows creating reinforcing bars of the circular shape. You can launch the tool by accessing the “Main menu” ribbon “Bar group” dropdown tab.
The algorithm for applying the "Circular group" tool is as follows:
Go to the “Circular group Properties” menu and set the “R$ebar group type” at “Normal”. Thus the bar group is defined by reinforcing circles bars not intersecting with each other.
Switching the “Rebar group type” to “Spiral” modifies
Thus we finalized configuring the bar group for concrete object number
Let’s get to concrete object number three.
The “Curved group” tool allows creating cambered reinforcing bars which are not closed into a circuit. The tool is located at the “Main menu” ribbon at the “Bar group” drop-down tab.
Go to concrete object number three.
The algorithm for applying the "Curved group" tool is as follows:
Modify the profile value of the concrete column to D1200 .
Thus we finalized configuring the bar group for concrete object number